Retributive Justice is something I first heard about from Marshall Rosenberg in the “Nonviolent Communication” training CD’s. Here is Wiki’s explaination of what it means:

“Retributive justice is a theory of justice that considers that punishment, if proportionate, is a morally acceptable response to crime, with an eye to the satisfaction and psychological benefits it can bestow to the aggrieved party, its intimates and society. … Its presence in the ancient Jewish culture is shown by its inclusion in the law of Moses, specifically in Deuteronomy 19:17-21, and Exodus 21:23-21:27, which includes the punishments of “life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot.” That phrasing in turn resembles the older Code of Hammurabi.” — from Wiki

The flip-side is Restorative Justice, as Rosenberg outlines. Here, again, is Wikipedia.

“Restorative Justice (also sometimes called “reparative justice”[1]) is an approach to justice that focuses on the needs of victims, offenders, as well as the involved community, instead of satisfying abstract legal principles or punishing the offender. Victims take an active role in the process, while offenders are encouraged to take responsibility for their actions, “to repair the harm they’ve done—by apologizing, returning stolen money, or community service”.[2] Restorative justice involves both victim and offender and focuses on their personal needs. In addition, it provides help for the offender in order to avoid future offences. It is based on a theory of justice that considers crime and wrongdoing to be an offence against an individual or community, rather than the state.[3] Restorative justice that fosters dialogue between victim and offender shows the highest rates of victim satisfaction and offender accountability.[4]” — from Wiki

A few links to learn more about Restorative Justice:
Restorative Justice Online/
Conflict Solution Center
The CNVC Restorative Justice Project